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Layne McDonald. Ph.D.

We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act but a habit. - Aristotle

Although some people treat management and leadership as synonyms, the two should be distinguished. There can be leaders of completely unorganized groups. On the other hand, there can be managers, as conceived here, only where organized structures create roles.

Separating leadership from management has significant analytical advantages. It allows leadership to be singled out for study without requiring qualifications relating to the more general governance issues.

To clarify, leadership is undoubtedly an essential aspect of managing. The ability to lead effectively is one of the keys to being an effective manager; also, undertaking the other essentials of management -- doing the entire managerial job -- has a significant bearing on ensuring that a manager will be an effective leader. Managers must exercise all the functions of their role to combine human and material resources to achieve aims. The key to doing this is having a clear position and a degree of discretion or authority to support the manager's actions.

The essence of leadership is followership. In other words, it is the willingness of other people to follow that makes a person a leader. Moreover, people tend to follow those they see as supplying a means of achieving their desires, wants, and needs. Leadership and motivation are closely interconnected. Understanding the basis can better appreciate what people want and why they function. Also, leaders may not only respond to subordinates' causes but also arouse or dampen them by the organizational climate they develop. Both these factors are as important to leadership as they are to management.

Leadership can be defined as influence, that is, the art of influencing people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically toward achieving group goals. Ideally, people should be encouraged to develop not only a willingness to work but also a willingness to work with zeal and confidence.

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