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The Expectancy Theory

Layne McDonald. Ph.D.

The quality of a leader is reflected in the standards they set for themselves. - Ray Kroc

In this theory, both Maslow's and Herzberg's motivation theories present expectations that trigger those motivations. Though this is true on some points, both approaches are criticized for generalizing it. It is clear with much recent research that „the same people are motivated by different things at various times and that different people are motivated by other things at the same time.

Therefore, there is no specific category of motivation. „Expectancy‟ refers to the “Subjective probability‟ that one thing will result in another. Therefore, there is no specific category of motivation. ersonal feeling is, therefore, an essential part of the Expectancy theory.

With this theory, an expectancy model was designed and here decided that one's motivation is strengthened as their perceived effort-performance and performance-reward probabilities increase. It may not seem easy, but we can discuss it through examples.

For instance, how strong can you be motivated to study if you expect to score poorly on your tests no matter how hard you study (low effort-performance probability) and when you know that the tests will not be graded (low performance-reward likelihood? In contrast, your motivation to learn will increase if you know that u can score well on the difficulties with just a little challenging work (High effort-performance probability) and that your grades will be significantly improved (high performance-reward likelihood).

Employees and staffs are no different from students or any other people. They are motivated to do and work harder if it gives them better and more valuable rewards.

With this, an employee’s contribution is decided on their rewards expectation. With this said, managers and leaders, can create strategies to push them to work harder by making clear expectations for their employees. When people can expect personally valued rewards, they will undoubtedly work harder to try to conducttheir tasks.

This is where one quality managers must have that will help: listening. One must listen to their employees, remember what they experienced as an employee, and discover what rewards certain employees‟ value. So, the manager can potentially enhance their employees‟ willingness to put more effort into the work.

The Goal Setting Theory

Another theory is the Goal Setting Theory wherein, as said and developed both by Latham and Locke in the year 1979 that a certain level of motivation and performance is higher when the individual has specific aims set up and when these aims, even with an elevated level of difficulty, are accepted and are offered performance feedback. The employees must participate in goal setting to obtain approved higher and higher targets. The human resources people can help them understand these targets' consequences over their entire activity.Feedback is vital to motivate employees, especially when targeting even higher aims.

Adams‟ Equity Theory

Categorized as one of the "justice " theories, The Equity Theory, which was first developed and studied by John Stacey Adams, claims that satisfying the needs of fairness and equality brought upon by managers is a drive that brings out the best results from their employees. Equity theory places value on fair treatment.

An individual will consider that he is treated fairly when he feels that he receives the amount like his output, and it is the same for other people around him. In this case, it would be acceptable for an employee with much more work experience and a senior colleague to receive higher compensation/salary for their job.

However, if an employee feels that another individual who is as skillful as him and supplies the same effort and output but earns more recognition or compensation, he will feel he is treated unfairly and thus perform at a lower level on his tasks.

An employee who feels he is over-compensated may increase his effort. Still, he may also change the feelings of his inputs and feel a sense of superiority, which may lead to him decreasing his efforts.

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